Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n. - new Genus of Neotropical Zeuzerinae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)
Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n. – género nuevo de Zeuzerinae Neotropical (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)
Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n. - new Genus of Neotropical Zeuzerinae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)
SHILAP Revista de lepidopterología, vol. 48, no. 191, pp. 473-479, 2020
Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterología
Received: 02 May 2020
Accepted: 12 May 2020
Published: 30 September 2020
Abstract: The article describes a new genus of Cossidae (Lepidoptera) from South America, Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n. (Type species Cossus mucoreus Herrich-Schäffer, ). The new genus is mostly close to the Neotropical genus Allocryptobia Viette, 1951; a detailed diagnosis is given. The apomorphic feature of the new genus is the presence of two small clasper or harpe in the middle third on the abdominal edge of the valve. The distribution map is provided and 12 figures.
Keywords: Lepidoptera, Cossidae, Ceuroma, Allocryptobia, fauna, taxonomy, Neotropical.
Resumen: El artículo describe un género nuevo de Cossidae (Lepidoptera) de Suramérica, Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n. (Especie tipo Cossus mucoreus Herrich-Schäffer, ). El género nuevo está próximo al género Neotropical Allocryptobia Viette, 1951; se da una detallada diagnosis. La característica apomórfica del género nuevo es la presencia de dos pequeños clásper o harpa en el tercio medio sobre el borde abdominal de la valva. Se proporciona un mapa de distribución y 12 figuras.
Palabras clave: Lepidoptera, Cossidae, Ceuroma, Allocryptobia, fauna, taxonomía, Neotropical.
Cossidae (Lepidoptera) is a family of primitive Ditrysian Lepidoptera with a worldwide distribution except for high latitudes. The representatives inhabiting the Neotropics are still poorly studied. The subfamily Zeuzerinae (type genus Zeuzera Latreille, 1804) is relatively well studied. In the recent years, a series of new species and genera have been described, the taxonomic position of several species and generic group taxa has been clarified (SCHOORL 1990; PENCO et al., 2016; NAYDENOV et al. 2019, 2020; YAKOVLEV et al., 2016, 2017, 2019a; 2020). In particular, the poorly studied Neotropical genus Allocryptobia Viette, 1951 (YAKOVLEV et al., 2019b) was redescribed. Originally, the genus Cryptobia was established for Cryptobia musae Herrich-Schäffer,  (type locality: Rio Grande) with the second species Cossus mucoreus Herrich-Schäffer,  (type locality: Brasil) added later (HERRICH-SCHÄFFER, 1850-1858). However, the name Cryptobia Herrich- Schäffer,  appears to be a junior homonym of CryptobiaLeidy, 1846 (Kinetoplastida, Cryptobiidae) (LEIDY, 1846), and Allocryptobia was proposed as an objective replacement name (VIETTE, 1951: 38). YAKOVLEV et al. (2019b) redescribed the genus Allocryptobia, indicated the lectotypes Cryptobia musae and Cossus mucoreus. C. mucoreus was provisionally assigned to the genus Allocryptobia, as at that moment the authors did not have the materials from NHMUK. Later, these materials were examined (including the unique known male from Venezuela), and it was established that the males of C. mucoreus significantly differ from the males of C. musae, which allows to allocate for them a monotypic genus. Its illustrated description and diagnosis is given below.
Material and methods
Male genitalia were mounted in euparal on slides following LAFONTAINE (2004) examined with an Olympus SZX16 microscope. The images were taken with the Olympus SZX16 camera. Images of imago were taken by the digital camera of Apple iPhone 7, illuminated in Lightbox. The images were processed using CorelDraw software.
Abbreviations used in the text:
NHMUK - Natural History Museum (London, United Kingdom)
MNHN - Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France)
USNM - United States National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) (Washington, USA)
ZISP - Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia)
ZSM - Zoologische Staatssammlung (Munich, Germany).
Ceuroma Yakovlev, Naydenov & Penco, gen. n.
Description. 1 ♂, Big size (fore wing length of male from Venezuela 22 mm). Antenna basally bipectinate, distal half simple filiform. Thorax and abdomen densely covered with dark brown scales. Fore wing long, narrow, relatively sharp apically, brown, poorly noticeable longitudinal dark brown lines and strokes postdiscally between veins; poorly expressed dark brown strokes throughout wing area. Hind wing short, apically sharp, coal-black, outer edge semi-transparent.
Male genitalia: Uncus elongated, apically slightly narrowing, semicircular, with small bulge; tegumen robust; gnathos arms thin, belt-like, not fused; valve lanceolate, relatively wide, slightly narrowing to apex, costal edge slightly curved, abdominal edge with notch in basal third; two small mastoid harpes equal in size on abdominal edge(in middle third); juxta robust, with two belt-like long lateral processes directed dorsally; saccus semicircular, wide; phallus short (shorter than valve), thick, basally very wide, big finger-like cornutus in vesica.
Female: Big size. Length of fore wing 24-28 mm. Antenna filiform, fore wing elongated, light- brown, with pattern of dark brown strokes and thin longitudinal lines between veins postdiscally. Hind wing bright-orange with relatively wide black rim, black reticulated pattern at anal angle.
Female genitalia: Ovipositor very long, ostium poorly submerged, cup-like; ductus thick, of medium length; bursa oval, with small stellate signum on lateral surface, ductus seminalis thin, departs from top of bursa; anterior apophyses significantly shorter than posterior ones; transverse oblique cuts on lateral surface of ovipositor; papillae anales semicircular.
Composition: The genus is monotypic, includes one species, C. mucorea (H.-S.).
Diagnosis: The new genus is mostly close to South-American Allocryptobia (Figs 6-7, 9, 11), from which it clearly differs in a series of features: pronounced sexual dimorphism, very narrow fore wing, semi-transparent outer edge on the male hind wing, bright-orange hind wing in females, two small harpes in middle third of the abdominal edge of the valve (this feature is apomorphic for the new genus).
Distribution: Brazil, Venezuela, Peru, Paraguay?
Etymology: “Ceuroma” is an anagram of the species name “mucorea”.
Ceuroma mucorea (Herrich-Schäffer, ), comb. n.
Cossus mucoreus Herrich-Schäffer,  1850-1858. Samml. Aussereur. Schmett., .: 58, pl. , fig. 39 LT: [Brasil]
Material examined: Lectotype, ♀, [Brasil] (ZISP); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, VENEZUELA: Valencia (BMNH); 3 ♀♀, PERU: Chanchamayo, 1000-1500 m. (BMNH); 1 ♀, BRAZIL (BMNH); 1 ♀, Caracas, Berg Avila, P. Cor. Vogl, 19-22-VII-31 (ZSM); 1 ♀, (paralectotype) Porto Cabello (MNHN).
Besides, we have at our disposal a photo of the holotype of Cryptobia phobifera Dyar, 1940 (Fig. 5) from Paraguay: Villa Rica, III-1922, Jorgensen (USNM). Its synonymy with C. mucorea remains doubtful, as the finding is very far from the basic habitat (Fig. 12).
Having the harpes on the abdominal edge of the valve, the genus Ceuroma belongs to the generic group of the Zeuzerinae subfamily, which includes South-American genera: Brypoctia Schoorl, 1990 (type species Xyleutes strigifer Dyar, 1910), Morpheis Hübner,  (type species Phalaena pyracmon Cramer, 1782) and the group of Australian species combined by KALLIES & HILTON (2012) into the “Sympycnodes digitata group”. Additionally, the same feature is found in the Central- African genus Acosma Yakovlev, 2011 (type species Acosma gurkoi Yakovlev, 2011), revised later (YAKOVLEV, 2019).
The authors express their gratitude to Th. J. Witt (†) (Munich), to Geoff Martin, Alessandro Giusti (NHMUK, London), Dr. Sergey Sinev (ZISP, Sant Petersburg), and Dr. Joël Minet (MNHN, Paris) for their kind assistance provided during studying the type material of the Natural History Museum. The genital preparations were made by Xenia Proskuryakova (Moscow). The author is grateful to Anna Ustjuzhanina (Tomsk) for the help in translation of the paper.
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