Artículos

The Brazilian species of the Neotropical genus Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 with description of one new species (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae, Heterocampinae)

Las especies brasileñas del género neotropical Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 con descripción de una especie nueva (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae, Heterocampinae)

V. O. Becker
Reserva Serra Bonita, Brasil

The Brazilian species of the Neotropical genus Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 with description of one new species (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae, Heterocampinae)

SHILAP Revista de lepidopterología, vol. 49, núm. 194, pp. 351-361, 2021

Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterología

Received: 26 August 2020

Accepted: 17 October 2020

Published: 30 June 2021

Abstract: Seven species of Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 are recorded for Brazil: O. adusta (Rothschild, 1917), O. biplaga (Rothschild, 1917), O. lemoulti (Schaus, 1905), O. magnaria Felder & Felder, 1874, O. mielkei Becker, sp. n., O. mistura (Schaus, 1905), and O. rothschildi (Draudt, 1932). Except for O. mistura (Schaus, 1905) and O. rothschildi (Draudt, 1932), the other five are new records for the country.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Hetrocampinae, Ophitis, synonyms, new species, Neotropical, Brazil, genitalia, illustrations.

Resumen: Siete especies de Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 son registradas para Brasil: O. adusta (Rothschild, 1917), O. biplaga (Rothschild, 1917), O. lemoulti (Schaus, 1905), O. magnaria Felder & Felder, 1874, O. mielkei Becker, sp. n., O. mistura (Schaus, 1905), and O. rothschildi (Draudt). Con excepción de O. mistura (Schaus, 1905)y O. rothschildi (Draudt, 1932), las otras cinco son registros nuevos para el país.

Palabras clave: Lepidoptera, Ophitis, especie nueva, Neotropical, Brasil, genitales, ilustraciones.

Introduction

The genus Ophitis Felder & Felder, 1874 includes 13 species of which only two (O. cossoides (Rothschild, 1917), and O. griffini (Schaus, 1939) (both synonyms; see below), were originally described from Brazil (BECKER, 2014: 18). It was treated by the earlier authors (SCHAUS, 1901: 313; DRAUDT, 1932: 995) as a monotypic genus. All the other species currently associated with it were originally described in the genus Rifargia Walker, 1862. Except for O. culpata (Schaus, 1912) and O. adusta (Rothschild, 1917), that reach Costa Rica, it is a South American genus, mostly in the Amazonian lowlands. The material in the collections show that at least seven species are present in Brazil, one of them undescribed. In order to identify the Brazilian species, all the type material belonging to the described species had to be examined.

Ophitis contain medium to large-size (50-80 mm wingspan) moths, with long, narrow FW, long, robust abdomen, resembling Sphingidae; antennae are short ciliated, looking nearly filiform. Male genitalia with uncus long, valvae broad, weakly sclerotized, sacculus pleated.

Material and methods

This work is based on 87 specimens (13 genitalia preparations), 81 in VOB, six in AMC, and on the type-material in the USNM and the NHMUK. Synoptic collections, representing all these species were taken to these institutions and compared with the types deposited there. The holotype of the new species is provisionally deposited in VOB, and will be transferred, together with the collection, to a Brazilian institution in the future. Genitalia were prepared following the methods described by ROBINSON (1976). Terms for morphological characters follow HODGES (1971).

Abbreviations

AMC Alfred Moser collection, São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

FW Forewing

g. s. genitalia slide

HW Hind wing

NHMUK The Natural History Museum, United Kingdom

PTC Paul Thiaucourt collection, Paris

UFPR Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

USNM United States National Museum, Washington

VOB Vitor O. Becker collection, Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan, Bahia, Brazil

Results and discussion

Among the material of Ophitis, collected in Brazil, specimens belonging to seven species were found. Five of them not previously recorded, including an undescribed one. In order to allow the identification of the Brazilian species, illustrations of adults and genitalia, diagnosis, and distribution of the species are here presented.

Ophitis magnaria Felder & Felder, 1874 (Figs. 1-3, 21-23)

Ophitis magnaria Felder & Felder, 1874. Reise Novara Lep. Het., (9)2(2): pl. 97, fig. 10

Holotype ♀, French Guiana: ‘Guyana gall.’ [no further data] (NHMUK) [examined].

= Rifargia imitata Druce, 1911. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) 8: 148

Holotype ♂, Trinidad: Caparo (NHMUK), synonymized by BECKER, 2014: 18 [examined].

Diagnosis: Male 27-30 mm (60-65 mm wingspan) (Figs. 1, 3), female (Fig. 2), slightly larger and with broader wings. Whitish gray; FW black area, based of antemedial band, inserted with an irregular, whitish area towards costa. Male genitalia (Fig. 21) with uncus tapering distad; a minute indentation at apex; socii small, thin, curved ventrad; valva with costa bearing a strong, sharp pointed, curved process at middle.

Material examined: Types; 5 ♂♂ (2 g. s.: 4099, 5559).

Distribution: Trinidad to Brazil (Pará, Rondônia, Goiás).

Remarks: Both types represent the sexes of the same species. Similar to the dark form of mistura, but in the last the area based of antemedial band is wholly black.

Adult Ophitis species, dorsal view. 1-3.O. magnaria. 1. ♂ Brazil. 2. holotype ♀. 3. holotype ♂ (= imitata). 4-5.O. mistura. 4. ♂ Brazil. 5. ♂ holotype (= cossoides). 6. O. culpata ♂ Costa Rica.
Figs. 1-6.
Adult Ophitis species, dorsal view. 1-3.O. magnaria. 1. ♂ Brazil. 2. holotype ♀. 3. holotype ♂ (= imitata). 4-5.O. mistura. 4. ♂ Brazil. 5. ♂ holotype (= cossoides). 6. O. culpata ♂ Costa Rica.

Ophitis mistura (Schaus, 1905) (Figs. 4, 5, 24-26)

Rifargia mistura Schaus, 1905. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29: 269

Lectotype ♂, French Guiana: St. Jean, Maroni River (USNM 8729), designated by SCHINTLMEISTER, 2014: 306.

= Rifargia cossoides Rothschild, 1917. Novit, Zool., 26: 254

Holotype ♂, Brazil: Amazonas, Fonte Boa, ‘Upper Amazons’ (Klages) (NHMUK), synonymized by SCHAUS, 1928: 72 [examined].

Diagnosis: Male 30-34 mm (66-72 mm wingspan) (Figs. 4, 5). FW whitish gray, area based of antemedial band ochreous-brown to blackish; a white patch below apex, distad of postmedial band, between R4 and M1; diffuse, pale band across middle, from costa to tornus; small ocellus on tornus. HW fuscous brown. Male genitalia (Fig. 24): uncus long, thin; socii small, bent distad; valva broad, costa with a long, sharp pointed thorn at base; abruptly constricted at distal third.

Material examined: Types; 13 ♂♂ (2 g. s.: 4098, 5560), 1 ♀.

Distribution: Guianas, Perú, and Brazil, south to Espírito Santo.

Remarks: Rifargia mistura Schaus, 1905 was described from an unspecified number of specimens with no reference to sex. Two male syntypes were traced, the male designated as lectotype, and the second male as paralectotype. The type of R. mistura Schaus, 1905 resembles the dark form of R. lemoulti Schaus, 1905. Specimens from Perú are more brownish, resembling R. culpata Schaus, 1912 (Fig. 6), from Costa Rica, including their genitalia (Fig. 27); the only noticeable difference is in the shape of costa of valvae, even in R. culpata, whereas abruptly constricted at distal third in R. mistura. Also similar to the sympatric O. magnaria, distinguished by the contrasting white patch below apex, distad of postmedial band. SCHINTLMEISTER (2016: 330), stated that R. mistura is a junior synonym of O. cymantis (Schaus, 1905), attributing this combination to BECKER (2014: 15), what obviously is a mistake, as Pronerice cymantis Schaus, 1905 is correctly listed under Kurtia Schaus, 1901 (BECKER, 2014: 13).

Ophitis lemoulti (Schaus, 1905) (Figs. 7-10, 30-32)

Rifargia lemoulti Schaus, 1905. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 29: 268

Lectotype ♂, FRENCH GUIANA: St. Jean, Maroni River (USNM 8728), designated by SCHINTLMEISTER, 2016: 330 [examined].

Diagnosis: Males 27-33 mm (60-70 mm wingspan) (Figs. 7, 8,10), females 30-33 mm (66-72 mm wingspan (Fig. 9). FW with area based of antemedial band ochreous, dusted brown, especially next to the band, or wholly brown, or dark-brown; area distad of antemedial band mouse-gray, with faint pattern. Male genitalia (Fig. 30) with long, thin uncus; socii arms very long, thin, helicoidal; valva with short, flat protrusion on costa before apex.

Material examined: Types; 32 ♂♂ (4 g. s.: 4101, 5556-5558), 2 ♀♀.

Distribution: Guianas to Brazil, as far South as Santa Catarina, in the lowlands.

Remarks: Described from an unspecified number of males and females. Three syntypes were traced, the male lectotype, and one male and one female designated as paralectotypes. The area based of antemedial band variable: most specimens ochreous, as in the type-series (Figs. 7, 9), brown to darkbrown, to near blackish in others (Figs. 8, 10). Specimens showing all the different forms can be sympatric, being collected at the same light in the same night. Male genitalia of all forms identical.