Issue

Two new species of the genus Klimeschiopsis Povolný, 1967 from southern Siberia discovered as a result of study cryptic diversity in K. discontinuella (Rebel, 1899) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Dos nuevas especies del género Klimeschiopsis Povolný, 1967 del sur de Siberia descubiertas como resultado del estudio de la diversidad críptica en K. discontinuella (Rebel, 1899) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Jan Šumpich
National Museum, REPÚBLICA CHECA / CZECH REPUBLIC
Oleksiy Bidzilya
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, UCRANIA / UKRAINE

Two new species of the genus Klimeschiopsis Povolný, 1967 from southern Siberia discovered as a result of study cryptic diversity in K. discontinuella (Rebel, 1899) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

SHILAP Revista de lepidopterología, vol. 50, no. 200, pp. 689-703, 2022

Sociedad Hispano-Luso-Americana de Lepidopterología (SHILAP)

Received: 23 May 2022

Accepted: 27 June 2022

Abstract: Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. and Klimeschiopsis confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. are described as new species for science based on differences from congeners in external appearance, genitalia of both sexes and genetic data. Klimeschiopsis varia is most similar to Klimeschiopsis discontinuella (Rebel, 1899) and Klimeschiopsis maritimaealpina Nel & Varenne, 2011 but can be distinguished by the genitalia characters. Klimeschiopsis confusella resembles Klimeschiopsis kiningerella (Duponchel, [1843]) and Klimeschiopsis terroris (Hartig, 1938) by absence of yellowish suffusion on forewings, but the coloration of new species is not so much contrasting, and the species is unmistakable according to the genitalia. Both new species occur sympatricaly in Russian Altai Mountains, Tuva and Buryatia.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Klimeschiopsis varia, Klimeschiopsis confusella, checklist, barcoding, Russia.

Resumen: Se describen como nuevas especies para la ciencia Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. y Klimeschiopsis confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., basándose en las diferencias con sus congéneres en cuanto al aspecto externo, la genitalia de ambos sexos y los datos genéticos. Klimeschiopsis varia es más similar a Klimeschiopsis discontinuella (Rebel, 1899) y Klimeschiopsis maritimaealpina Nel & Varenne, 2011, pero se puede distinguir por los caracteres de la genitalia. Klimeschiopsis confusella se parece a Klimeschiopsis kiningerella (Duponchel, [1843]) y a Klimeschiopsis terroris (Hartig, 1938) por la ausencia de espolvoreado amarillento en las alas anteriores, pero la coloración de las nuevas especies no es tan contrastada y la especie es inconfundible según la genitalia. Las dos nuevas especies se encuentran simpáticamente en las montañas rusas del Altai, Tuva y Buriatia.

Palabras clave: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Klimeschiopsis varia, Klimeschiopsis confusella, lista, código de barras, Rusia.

Introduction

The genus Klimeschiopsis Povolný, 1967 has so far included six species, exclusively from the Palearctic region ( Povolný, 1968; Huemer & Karsholt, 2010, 2020; Nel & Varenne, 2011; Bidzilya, 2012). Adults of Klimeschiopsis are often variable in external appearance, and the genitalia of most of species are very similar to each other that resulted in underestimated species diversity. A detailed study of morphological characters as well as barcoding of the available material yielded in the recent description of an Alpine endemic K. maritimaealpinaNel & Varenne, 2011. However, additional taxa displayed in the BOLD differing genetically remain formally undescribed so far (one BIN from Pakistan and two BINs even from North America). The aim of this paper is to summarize the existing information on the already described species of the genus and to describe two additional new species from southern Siberia of Russia. Both new species can be distinguished by unique combination of external and genitalia characters, and their separate status is supported by molecular data.

Material and methods

The present study based on material from the following collections

MZHFinnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, FinlandMNCNMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, SpainNHMWNaturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, AustriaNMPCNational Museum, Prague, Czech RepublicNUPPResearch collection of Kari & Timo Nupponen, Espoo, FinlandZINZoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sankt-Petersburg, RussiaZMKUZoological Museum, Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv, Ukraine

Study material collected by the first author was attracted at ultraviolet light (8W/12V tubes) installed in portable light traps. Oleksiy Bidzilya collected the specimens by attracting at light of “Petromax” gasoline lamp.

Preparations of genitalia slides followed standard techniques for Gelechiidae, and the descriptive terminology follows Huemer & Karsholt (2010). The order of species in the checklist is alphabetical. Pinned specimen were photographed with a camera Canon 750D in the combination of a Canon MP-E-65 mm lens (Jan Šumpich). Slide-mounted genitalia were photographed with a Canon EOS 200D DSLR camera mounted on an Olympus CX-31 stereomicroscope (Jan Šumpich). For each photographs sets of 10-20 images were taken at different focal planes and focused-stacked using Helicon Focus 6 with the final image edited in Adobe Photoshop CS5.

A tissue samples (dry legs) from Klimeschiopsis specimens were successfully processed at the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding (CBG, Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph) ( DeWaard et al. 2008), resulting in a 610 -658 base-pair DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene (cytochrome c oxidase 1). The sequences together with details of the sequenced specimens were uploaded to the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD; Ratanassingham & Hebert, 2007). Degrees of intra- and interspecific variation of DNA barcode fragments were calculated under the Kimura 2-parameter model of nucleotide substitution using the analytical tools of BOLD. A neighbor joining tree of DNA barcode data of selected taxa ( Figures 42) and the group mean distance ( Table 1) were constructed using MEGA 6 ( Tamura et al. 2013) under the Kimura 2 parameter model for nucleotide substitutions.

Neighbor-Joining tree of 
						Klimeschiopsis species created from public records in BOLD, with 
						Caryocolum tetrameris (Meyrick, 1926) as outgoroup. Source: Barcode of Life. Database, cf. 
						RATNASINGHAM & HEBERT (2007).
Figures 42.
Neighbor-Joining tree of Klimeschiopsis species created from public records in BOLD, with Caryocolum tetrameris (Meyrick, 1926) as outgoroup. Source: Barcode of Life. Database, cf. RATNASINGHAM & HEBERT (2007).

Results

Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n.

Material examined: Holotype ♂, RUSSIA, Altai Republic, Kosh-Agach Distr., Kurai env. (15 km SW), Dzhangyskol lake (or Salagana lake), 1830 m, 50º10’49”N; 87º44’19”E, coniferous forest/steppe, 24-25-VI-2015, J. Šumpich leg. (gen. slides 17076, J. Šumpich; Barcode NMPC-Lep-0086) (NMPC).

Paratypes: RUSSIA: 1 ♀, same data as for holotype; Altai Republic, Kosh-Agach Distr., Beltir env. (16 km W), Chagan valley, 49º57’06”N; 87º53’39”E, coniferous forest / rocks, 2150 m, 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 2-3-VII-2014, J. Šumpich leg. (Barcode NMPC-Lep-0317) (gen. slide 196/21&&, O. Bidzilya); Altai Republic, Aktash vill., 50º19’12”N; 87º36’00”E, grassy steppe, rocks, 1400 m, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 11-VII-2014, J. Šumpich leg. (gen. prep. 22098, J. Šumpich); 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, same data but 21-VI-2015 (gen. prep. 17075 and 22092, J. Šumpich; Barcode NMPC-Lep-0084 and NMPC-Lep-0085); 2 ♀♀, same data but 24-VI-2019; Altai Republic, Kosh-Agach Distr., Chagan-Uzun env., Krasnaya Gorka hill, 50º05’00”N; 8825’15”E, rocky steppe, 1870 m, 1 ♂, 29-VI-2015, J. Šumpich leg.; 2 ♂♂, same data but 1-3-VII-2019 (gen. slide 22048, J. Šumpich; gen. prep. 22094, J. Šumpich); Altai Republic, Belyashi (Dzhazator) env. (25 km NW), confluence of Argut and Karagem rivers, 49º51’56”N, 87º10’22”E, rocky steppe, 1400 m, 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 27-28-VII-2017, J. Šumpich leg. (gen. prep. 22055, J. Šumpich; gen. slide 197/21, ♀, O. Bidzilya) Barcode NMPC-Lep-0318 and NMPC-Lep-0319); Altai Republic, Ulagan vill., Chulyshman valley, 51º01’03”N; 88º00’39”E, grassy steppe, rocks, 600 m, 3 ♂♂, 27-28-VI-2015, J. Šumpich leg. (gen. prep. 22054, J. Šumpich; Barcode NMPC-Lep-0088); 7 ♂♂, 16 ♀♀, same data but 26-27-VI-2019 (gen. prep. 22056, J. Šumpich); 2♂♂, 1 ♀, same data but 4-5-VII-2019 (gen. prep. 22057, J. Šumpich) (all NMPC, 2 ♀♀ MNCN, 2 ♀♀ ZMKU); 4 ♂♂ Russia, Altai, Ongudai distr., Tchuya river bank 15 km downstream of Iodro village, 6-7-VIII-2000, O. Bidzilya (Barcode Bidz. 00098, 00099, 00100, 00101 [all failed]) (gen. slide 132/14, 376/14, O. Bidzilya) (ZMKU); 1 ♂, USSR, SW-Altai, Katun valley 10 km W Katanda, 1200 m, 15-19-VII-1983, K. Mikkola, H. Hippa & J. Jalava leg.; 1 ♂, USSR, SW-Altai, 5 km W Katanda, light trap, 1200 m, 1-VII-1983, K. Mikkola, H. Hippa & J. Jalava leg. (gen. slide 100/22, O. Bidzilya) (MZH); 1 ♀ Russia, Tuva rep., 50º44N 93º08’E, E Tannu-Ola, Irbitel r., stony steppe slopes, 1000 m, 13-16-VI-1995, J. Jalava & J. Kullberg leg. (gen. slide 99862, PH); 1 ♂ Russia, Tuva rep., 52º04N 94º22’E, Ust-Ujuk steppe hills, 570 m, 3-5-VI-1995, J. Jalava & J. Kullberg leg. (gen. slide 100/22, O. Bidzilya) (MZH); 1 ♂, Russia, SW Buryatia, 51º47-48’N 100º55-58’, E Sayan Mts., Mondy vill. 2 km E, forest-steppe, 15-VI-2002, K. Nupponen leg. (gen. slide 346/16, O. Bidzilya) (NUPP); 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, Altai Republic, Ulagan district, 12 km SSE Koo, 50º58’N 87º56’E, 550 m, 6-8-VII-2013, S. Sinev leg. (ZIN).

Diagnosis: Klimeschiopsis varia is difficult to distinguish from K. discontinuella and K. maritimaealpina by external appearance. In the series, K. varia is a smaller species and compared to the latter’s it appears darker. Within comparison of Siberian species, the largest specimens of K. varia reach the size of the smallest specimens of K. confusella. Reliable identification is only possible by examination of the genitalia or genetic data. Male genitalia of K. varia are characterized by stout sacculus (slender in K. confusella), a very narrow saccus, only slightly widening at the base (broader in K. confusella, wider and shorter in K. maritimaealpina), narrow and comparatively long phallus (broader and shorter in K. confusella and K. discontinuella) and broad base of tegumen (narrower in K. confusella, K. maritimaealpina and K. discontinuella). Female genitalia of K. varia are distinguished by elongated funnel-shaped antrum (in the shape of an almost regular triangle in K. discontinuella) and signum that is about half length of apophysis anterioris (one quarter in K. discontinuella, one third in K. confusella).

Description Adult ( Figures 1-8, 21-22): Wingspan 10.0-14.0 mm. Head creamy yellow, tegulae covered with brown and creamy yellow scales with brown tips, thorax dark brown, labial palpi light yellow, base of third and second segment with brown scales, tip of third segment brown. Antennae dark, ringed with yellow, more conspicuous in their ending, filiform. Forewing brown-grey with two dark fasciae near base and in first third, and wide dark transversal line in two third. Apex more or less suffused with creamy yellow scales, bright, slightly angulated fascia near apex that tends to be more conspicuous in darker specimens. Fringes yellowish mixed with brown scales. Hindwing and its cilia grey, slightly darker in apical area.

Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Russia, Altai Mts., adults. 
								1. Holotype, Dzhangyskol lake. 
								2-8. Paratypes. 
								2. Beltir. 
								3-4. Aktash. 
								5-6. Confluence of Karagem and Argut rivers. 
								7-8. Chulyshman valley. (1-7 barcoded).
Figures 1-8.
Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Russia, Altai Mts., adults. 1. Holotype, Dzhangyskol lake. 2-8. Paratypes. 2. Beltir. 3-4. Aktash. 5-6. Confluence of Karagem and Argut rivers. 7-8. Chulyshman valley. (1-7 barcoded).

Klimeschiopsis species. 
									17-20. Adults. 
									17-19.K. discontinuella (Rebel, 1899), Italy, S Tirol. 
									13. Lasa, J. Šumpich leg. 
									14. Laatsch, J. Šumpich leg. 
									15. Stelvio, J. Liška leg. 
									20.K. afghana Povolný, 1968. (17-19 in coll. NMPC, 20 in coll NHMW). 
									21-24. Heads. 
									21-22.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 
									23-24.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. (21 and 24 holotypes).
Figures 17-24.
Klimeschiopsis species. 17-20. Adults. 17-19.K. discontinuella (Rebel, 1899), Italy, S Tirol. 13. Lasa, J. Šumpich leg. 14. Laatsch, J. Šumpich leg. 15. Stelvio, J. Liška leg. 20.K. afghana Povolný, 1968. (17-19 in coll. NMPC, 20 in coll NHMW). 21-24. Heads. 21-22.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 23-24.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. (21 and 24 holotypes).

Variation: Sexual dimorphism is not observed. In the most specimens, fascia in the first third of forewing reaches the costal margin only, but in some specimens, it connects costal and dorsal margins. Individual specimens may look brighter and more contrasting due to more intensive creamy yellow suffusion between dark fasciae and in the apical area. Based on study of the available collection material it seems that the specimens collected in higher altitudes and in colder conditions ( Figures 1-2) have larger wingspan than the moths collected at lower altitudes.

Male genitalia ( Figures 25-28): Tegumen narrow with deep anteromedial emargination, uncus broader than long, rounded, distal sclerite of gnathos small and rounded, valva slightly curved, blunt ended, distinctly shorter than top of uncus. Sacculus comparatively broad, significantly bent, regularly tapering, pointed at end. Posterior margin of vinculum with U-shaped emargination, lateromedial projections broad and rounded. Saccus very narrow, comparatively long, only slightly widening at base. Phallus narrow, long, hook-ended.

Male genitalia of 
										Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 
										25. Holotype, Dzhangyskol lake. 
										26-28. Paratypes. 
										26. Krasnaya Gorka. 
										27. Chylushman valley. 
										28. Karagem. (a - phallus, b - detail of tip of phallus: 25-26. Lateral view, 27-28. Frontal view).
Figures 25-28.
Male genitalia of Klimeschiopsis varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 25. Holotype, Dzhangyskol lake. 26-28. Paratypes. 26. Krasnaya Gorka. 27. Chylushman valley. 28. Karagem. (a - phallus, b - detail of tip of phallus: 25-26. Lateral view, 27-28. Frontal view).

Female genitalia ( Figures 32, 34-37): Apophysis anterioris three times shorter than apophysis posterioris. Antrum funnel-shaped with slightly concave outer margin, ductus bursae nearly as long as corpus bursa, membranous, slightly widening proximally, corpus bursa oval, signum hook-shaped, sharply pointed. Signum half-length of apophysis anterioris.

Female genitalia of 
											Klimeschiopsis. 
											32-33. General view. 
											32.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Aktash, paratype. 
											33.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Dzhazator, Tara valley, holotype. 
											34-41. Detail of signum. 
											34-37.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 
											34-35. Aktash. 
											36. Chulyshman valley. 
											37. Aktash. 
											38. 41.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Dzhazator, Tara valley. 
											38-39. Holotype (a - lateral view).
Figures 32-41.
Female genitalia of Klimeschiopsis. 32-33. General view. 32.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Aktash, paratype. 33.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Dzhazator, Tara valley, holotype. 34-41. Detail of signum. 34-37.K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 34-35. Aktash. 36. Chulyshman valley. 37. Aktash. 38. 41.K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n., Dzhazator, Tara valley. 38-39. Holotype (a - lateral view).

Molecular data: BIN: BOLD:ADR5392. The intraspecific average distance of the barcode region is 0.18% (n=7). According to the BOLD, the minimum distance to the nearest neighbour, Klimeschiopsis confusella, is 4.98 % (p-dist), respectively 5.18 distance computed by MEGAX software using another algorithm ( Table 1).

Biology: Host plant unknown. Adults have been collected from early June to early August at altitudes between 600 and 2150 m in rocky steppes ( Figures 43, 45). It is obvious that the species is occurring in the habitats in lower altitudes compared with K. confusella.

Habitats of new 
												Klimeschiopsis species in Altai Mts. 
												43. Chulyshman valley, 600 m a.sl., habitat of 
												K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 
												44. Zavod, 2900 m a.sl., habitat of 
												K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 
												45. Steppe near Dzhangyskol lake, 1830 m a.sl., where both species occur sympatrically.
Figures 43-45.
Habitats of new Klimeschiopsis species in Altai Mts. 43. Chulyshman valley, 600 m a.sl., habitat of K. varia Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 44. Zavod, 2900 m a.sl., habitat of K. confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n. 45. Steppe near Dzhangyskol lake, 1830 m a.sl., where both species occur sympatrically.

Distribution: Russia (Altai Mts., Tuva, Buryatia).

Etymology: The species name is derived from the Latin varius which points to diversity in external appearance as well as to different size of individual specimens.

Klimeschiopsis confusella Šumpich & Bidzilya, sp. n.

Material examined: Holotype ♀, RUSSIA, Altai Republic, Belyashi (Dzhazator) env. (56 km SE), 49º39’45”N, 88º14’28”E, rocky steppe and mountain meadows near Tara River, 2400 m, 25-26-VII-2017, Jan Šumpich leg. (gen. prep. 18576, J. Šumpich; Barcode NMPC-Lep-0320) (NMPC).

Paratypes: RUSSIA: 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, same data as for holotype (gen. slide 22058 J. Šumpich, gen. prep. 22099, J. Šumpich); Altai Republic, Kosh-Agach Distr., Kurai env. (15 km SW), Dzhangyskol lake (or Salagana lake), 1830 m, 50º10’49”N; 87º44’19”E, coniferous forest/steppe, 4 ♂♂, 24-25-VI-2015, J. Šumpich leg. (Barcode NMPC-Lep-0321 [failed]) (gen. slide 22053, J. Šumpich, gen. prep. 22095 and 22096, J. Šumpich); same data but 29-30-VI-2019 (gen. prep. 22050, J. Šumpich); Altai Republic, Aktash vill., 5019’12”N; 8736’00”E, grassy steppe, rocks, 1400 m, 1 ♂, 11-VII-2014, J. Šumpich leg. (gen. prep. 22097, J. Šumpich); 2 ♂♂, same data but 21-VI-2015 (gen. prep. 22093, J. Šumpich); Altai Republic, Aktash env., road to 9. station (“Zavod”), 50º19’34”N; 87º43’54”E, mountain meadows, 2400-2900 m, 1 ♂, 23-VI-2015, Jan Šumpich leg. (Barcode NMPC-Lep-0087 [failed]) (all NMPC, 1 ♂ ZMKU); 1 ♂, Buryatia, 54º52’N 110º55’E, Barguzin range, 1400-1800 m, rocky creek, 4-5-VII-1996, J. Kullberg leg. (gen. slide 99861, PH) (MZH).

Diagnosis: Klimeschiopsis confusella has no yellowish suffusion on the forewings and it is much darker compared with K. varia, K. maritimaealpina and K. discontinuella. The new species somewhat resembles K. kinigerella (Duponchel, [1843]) and K. terroris ( Hartig, 1938) too, but it is less contrasting. Reliable identification of some specimens is only possible by examination of the genitalia or genetic data. Male genitalia of K. confusella are characterized by stout saccus broad in its base (slender in K. varia), and by toothed termination of phallus which seems to be unique within genus. Generally, male genitalia of K. confusella are very similar to those of K. discontinuella, but these species are easily separated by their external appearance. Female genitalia of K. confusella are characterized by a signum with two sclerotised plates at its base which seems to be unique within genus.

Description Adult ( Figures 9-16, 23-24): Wingspan 12.0-15.0 mm. Head light yellow, tegulae and thorax dark brown, labial palpi light yellow, base of third and second segment with brown scales, tip of third segment brown, antennae dark, filiform. Forewing narrow strikingly elongated and almost pointed distally, brown-grey with black fasciae at base and apical area, and two blackish transversal fasciae in second and third fifth of wing. Fringes yellowish suffused with dark scales usually in an irregular row. Hindwing grey, slightly darker in apical area.